Schwa epenthesis in dutch

The same occurs in the song " Umbrella ". French has a three level use of initial epenthesis depending on the time of incorporation: In the Gallo-Romance languageshowever, a prop vowel was added: That may well produce impermissible final clusters. Some dialects also use [e] for voiced consonant clusters, which is deemed as stereotypical of the lower classes: That is a synchronic analysis.

Regular or semiregular epenthesis commonly occurs in languages with affixes. An example of buffering in Lojban: However it is correct to call it epenthesis when viewed synchronically since the modern basic form of the verb is a and so the psycholinguistic process is therefore the addition of t to the base form.

In Standard Finnish, consonant clusters may not be broken by epenthetic vowels; foreign words undergo consonant deletion rather than addition of vowels: EpenthesisUnstressed voweland Vowel reduction Sometimes the term "schwa" is used for any epenthetic vowelbut other languages use different epenthetic vowels Navajo uses [i].

However, a synchronic analysis, in keeping with the perception of most native speakers, would equally correctly see it as epenthesis: It is almost always unstressed, but AlbanianBulgarianSlovene and Afrikaans are some of the languages that allow stressed schwas.

Some apparent occurrences of epenthesis, however, have a separate cause: Turkish prefixes close vowels to loanwords with initial clusters of alveolar fricatives followed by another consonant: In Englishschwa is the most common vowel sound.

An exception is that in Pohjanmaa, -lj- and -rj- become -li- and -ri- respectively: However, the pronunciation was often not written with double ll, and may have been the normal way of pronouncing a word starting in rel- rather than a poetic modification.

A similar example is the English indefinite article a, which becomes an before a vowel. Also, the vowel sound used must not be confused with any existing Lojban vowel. Other examples exist in Modern Persian in which former word-initial consonant clusters, which were still extant in Middle Persianare regularly broken up: The second is [e], connecting stems that have historically been consonant stems to their case endings: See also stress and vowel reduction in English.

A vowel sound that is nonexistent in Lojban is added between two consonants to make the word easier to pronounce. Similarly, the agent noun of verkopen "to sell" is verkoper "salesperson"but the agent noun of uitvoeren "to perform" is uitvoerder "performer".

Finnish has moraic consonants:Sometimes the term "schwa" is used for any epenthetic vowel, but other languages use different epenthetic vowels (Navajo uses [i]).

In English, schwa is the most common vowel sound.


It is a reduced vowel in many unstressed syllables especially if syllabic consonants are not used. Depending on dialect, it may be written using any of the following letters.

Uses. Epenthesis arises for a variety of reasons. The phonotactics of a given language may discourage vowels in hiatus or consonant clusters, and a consonant or vowel may be added to make pronunciation easier. Epenthesis may be represented in writing or be a feature only of the spoken language.

Separating vowels. A consonant may be added to separate vowels in hiatus.

Schwa epenthesis in dutch
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