Blood pressure regulation essay

Basic outline of homeostatic control systems Stimulus produces a change in the variable, away from the baseline value Receptor detects change Receptor sends signal along afferent pathway to control centre Control centre integrates inputs and compares to set-point Efferent signal sent out to effector Effector produces controlled response, which usually opposes the stimulus to return the variable to within its homeostatic range negative feedback.

Communication between the 3 components occurs via the nervous system most commonly the autonomic system, with input from higher centresbut may also occur by hormones travelling in the blood Marieb There are also numerous chemicals which aid regulation of blood pressure in the short term, plus the renin-angiotensin system of the kidney which can help to counter long-term changes.

Therefore, it is obviously crucial to maintain blood flow at a sufficient rate through the systemic tissues and lungs.

The brain centres integrate inputs and send out impulses to the blood vessels and the heart to produce changes in peripheral resistance and cardiac output, which will lead to changes in the blood pressure.

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The response is monitored and negative feedback ensures that the blood pressure is returned to normal levels. If a decrease Blood pressure regulation essay blood pressure is detected, such as when changing posture from laying down to standing, the baroreceptors send impulses to the vasomotor centre, as the first part of the reflex arc.

The walls of the large arteries that receive this blood are elastic and recoil when blood is pumped into them under pressure. Annu Rev Physiol 37, Meaney and colleagues have more recently suggested that 0.

Relays from the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus can also influence the centres in the medulla oblongata and hence affect blood pressure, for example in the fight-or-flight response, exercise or temperature fluctuations.

This is achieved by the heart, which pumps the blood around the vessels and maintains blood pressure, which drives the blood through the arterial system to the capillary beds within the tissues. The progression from hypertension to congestive heart failure.

The main role of chemoreceptors is in the control of respiration. Many of these chemical and neural mechanisms act simultaneously when blood pressure alters outside its normal range, and some chemicals are released under neural control. Baroreceptors, and to a lesser extent chemoreceptors, detect alterations in mean arterial pressure and inform the vasomotor centre and cardiac centres in the medulla, via a reflex arc.

From here an efferent pathway runs to the third component; the effector, which produces a controlled response to either decrease or enhance the stimulus see figure 1. Control of blood pressure is achieved by several mechanisms: This increases the peripheral resistance, thereby increasing blood pressure back to its normal level.

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Fundam Clin Pharmacol 1, Formula and nomogram for the sphygmomanometric calculation of the mean arterial pressure. Baroreceptors are located in the large arteries of the neck and thorax, the aortic arch and the carotid sinus and detect changes in arterial blood pressure by the amount the vessel wall is stretched when blood is pumped across them.

Vasomotor activity can be modified by inputs from baroreceptors and chemoreceptors, higher brain centres hypothalamus and cerebrum as well as some hormones, to alter blood pressure. Maintaining blood pressure is crucial to ensure that all tissues are adequately perfused.

These are summarised below in table 1. Also stimulates adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone, which increases retention of sodium and water, thus increasing blood volume. Veins can be dilated to act as reservoirs for blood, effectively reducing the circulating blood volume, and lowering blood pressure.

If this does not occur at a sufficient rate cells suffer hypoxia, lack of energy substrates and the toxic effects of metabolic waste build up, which leads to poor function and eventually cell death. The baroreceptors also send impulses to the cardiac centres, stimulating the cardioacceleratory centre to increase sympathetic activity and decrease parasympathetic activity, which increases the heart rate and force and therefore cardiac outputuntil blood pressure has reached its homeostatic level.

Inputs and the effectiveness of the responses to restore the blood pressure are monitored by the control centres in the medulla, to determine if the effector response need to be increased or can be halted due to return of normal pressure.

Most homeostatic mechanisms work to decrease the stimulus, i.Blood pressure regulation and changes occurring after increase in blood pressure Each time the heart pumps, it sends blood all over the body to supply organs and tissues with oxygen and nutrients.

The strength of the force created as the heart pumps blood into the vessels together with the vessels’ resistance to the blood flow is defined as the body’s blood pressure (Darovic, ). Feb 24,  · The Cardiovascular System: Blood Pressure Regulation. Topics: Blood testing during a clinical simulative skill session The clinical skill that I have decided to reflect on in this essay is the manual blood pressure test that I have performed on one of my colleague during a simulative clinical skills session.

The aim of this. BP __ __ impulses __ __ PNS and __ __ SNS __ __ BP ultimedescente.com a result of these changes in the PNS and SNS, list two effects on the heart and one on blood vessels.

Heart: Decreases cardiac output and decreases heart rate. Blood vessels: Vasodilation. ultimedescente.comr to question 3. Effect of Yoga Nidra on Blood Pressure Essay suggestive of parasympathetic(4) improvement.

Since the autonomic regulation constitute a major part in the regulation of blood pressure(5), it is safe to assume that Yoga Nidra can bring about changes in blood pressure. Blood Pressure Regulation. The human body is an incredibly complex machine, consisting of numerous organ systems that interact continuously with both the internal and external ultimedescente.com internal environment is that inside the body itself and is dynamic, i.e.

constantly changing, but within well defined ultimedescente.com limits are defined by set points in the various body systems, such as. 1. a. Short term mechanisms for modulating blood force per unit area include modulating what three things?

1.

The Cardiovascular System: Blood Pressure Regulation Essay Sample

Vessel diameter 2. Contractibility.

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Blood pressure regulation essay
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